New study shows that immobilization reduces the bioavailability of PFAS in soil


Dr Sali Biek and her team in the laboratory of Professor Andy Ball at RMIT University has published new data in Environmental Science and Pollution Research showing that the uptake of PFAS by grasses is significantly reduced when soil is immobilized using RemBind. (

This data adds to a growing body of evidence that immobilization is a viable and environmentally friendly method for the management of PFAS impacted soils. Previous studies showed that RemBind significantly reduced the bioavailability of PFAS in mice (Juhasz et al., 2022) and in plants and earthworms (Braunig et al., 2021).

Methods to Determine Bioavailability and Ecotoxicity

In this mesocosm study, PFAS-contaminated soil with a mean total concentration of 8.05 mg/kg and a mean combined PFHxS+PFOS concentration of 7.89 mg/kg was treated with an immobilisation sorbent (RemBind) at different application rates (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 5% w/w).

To assess the efficacy of this immobilisation treatment, PFAS leachability, PFAS plant uptake, and ecotoxicity tests were conducted. Leachability testing was performed according to the Australian Standard Leaching Procedure (ASLP) at pH 5 and 7. A grass species (Dactylis glomerata) was used to measure plant uptake of PFAS from untreated and treated contaminated soil. In addition, the Microtox test was used to assess the associated ecotoxicity.

Decrease in Bioavailability

The immobilisation treatment resulted in a significant reduction of 88.5 to 99.8% in the total PFAS leachability and 88.7 to 99.8% in the combined PFOS and PFHxS leachability at pH 5. Similarly, significant reductions (5 to 12-fold) were observed in the plant uptake of total PFAS and combined PFOS and PFHxS in all treated soil samples.

Decrease in Ecotoxicity

In addition, although the Microtox test showed relatively low ecotoxicity in all the experimental samples, including the untreated soil, a significant decrease in the ecotoxicity of treated soil samples was observed.

Conclusions of the Study

The results from this study highlight that this treatment approach has the potential to reduce both PFAS leachability and plant bioavailability with a relatively low associated ecotoxicity. This is likely to reduce the risk of the transfer of PFAS into higher trophic levels.

This immobilisation treatment may, therefore, reduce the risk associated with PFAS-contaminated soils and may be an important remediation tool for managing certain PFAS-contaminated soils.

View Paper


Juhasz, A, Kastury, F, Herde C, Tang, W. Application of soil amendments for reducing PFAS leachability and bioavailability. Environmental Pollution 2022: Vol. 307, 119498.

Braunig J, Baduel C, Barnes CM, Mueller JF. Sorbent assisted immobilisation of perfuoroalkyl acids in soils effect on leaching and bioavailability. Journal of Hazard Materials 2021:125171. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125171

2nd Annual #H2020 SCENARIOS Project EU meeting in Athens, Greece is ON! Let the #PFAS results begin to flow! 👌👏🇬🇷


Alright! 11 Work packages are on site in Athens to present the work carried out under the 2 year period we have been involved. On site, proudly representing the Envytech team, is Say Svanström, project manager WP7 and pilot site officer, and Helena Hinrichsen, work packages leader WP7, Scenarios project. The work packages that this meeting is focusing on, as these packages have retrieved innovative and substantial amounts of results are:

Now that is an agenda we find Extremely interesting! 💣💥

For more in depth information, please follow the SCENARIOS Project EU here on linked, as well as our WP7 leader Helena Hinrichsen or contact our project captain Francesco Dondero, PhD

Sustainable, ”no waste” removal of both long and short chain PFAS at Korsör ground zero in Denmark


Many have, as the expression says ”broken the code” for treating PFAS in water. But almost always, one forget to mention the costs associated with the code breaking, and most important of all, how much waste it produces, what happens to that waste, and how much the waste handling cost. We can do anything with unlimited funds. A new Swede just landed on the moon for example.

The challenge is to do it in a sustainable, effective and economic way. And most importantly, we need to stop the PFAS from returning to the environment . This and much more is the aim of the Horizon 2020 SCENARIOS Project EU.

Check out the status of the project laid out by our PFASionista and CCO PFAS Helena.

Tight Tech Tuesday presents a tight description of what PFAS water treatment solution to use for PFAS contaminated ground waters.


Non complex water with no co-contaminants, and low to medium PFAS levels, and low levels of suspended particles and organics.

Step 1: A smart pre treatment step, with a smart cleaning procedure, for removal of fine suspended particles. Think outside the old fashioned sand filter solution please, we do!

Step 2: PFAS specific Ion exchange mass (AIX), contained in pressurized filter vessels that are connected in series.

Incoming water passes the pre filter where suspended solids are polished away. A very important step to maximize the life span of the expensive AIX media, that follows.

The AIX media is installed in a two step treatment process called lead and lag filter. The PFAS is adsorbed and removed from the water in the first AIX vessel, and the second vessel handles any PFAS that desorb from the first step, something that has been noted to happen as short chain PFAS – the princesses of all contaminants – don’t like crowded areas. So together the two filters in series maximizes the capacity of the AIX filter volumes.

– And if you have organics in the water, low to medium levels, a filter vessel containing activated carbon can be used after the particle treatment step, to save the sensitive AIX media from clogging.

This solution is for us, an off the shelf product that we are ready to install where ever needed, and can handle flows from above 0 and up. The size of the vessels and volumes of medias is what will vary. As well as sizes of pumps and pipes.

First SAFF project in Denmark to treat PFAS contaminated water at ”Ground Zero”, Korsör Fire Fighting school


Congratulations Denmark! You have just received  your first SAFF – Surface Active Foam Fractionation unit. And we can’t wait to show all who is interested the capabilities as well as sustainable, effective and economic PFAS water treatment technology by EPOC Enviro  – and results as they come in.

The commissioning of the SAFF is a part of the Horizon2020 SCENARIOS Project EU. A project where EU has granted 3 teams to evaluate ”all” in regards of PFAS entering routes to the environment, routes of transport in the environment, toxicity, effect on human and environmental health and much more, as well as evaluation of sustainable and economic remediation and destruction methods. In short, the project is described as EUs take on being best in the world at PFAS.
And Envytech Solutions AB is an important part of the project, both supplying the SAFF technology as well as managing the role as team leader for Work packages 7 – Remediation.

The treatment uses no consumables such as filter medias or chemicals, and remove up to 99,9% of PFAS6 compounds, as well as some shorter chain compounds. However, as research by incredible biotech company and Envytech partner Allonnia, show potential of additives to further enhance the removal efficiency of short chain PFAS in the SAFF, we will be adding different amendments and research their potential to increase SAFF removal efficiency.

The unit on site is a SAFF20 unit with treatment capacity of 7-12 m3/h, depending on the water. SAFF20 has the capacity to perform 2 concentration steps (up to 500 000 times), producing minimal waste, only using 0,7 kwh/m3 treated water. A difference to the SAFF40 system, being able to achieve concentration factors of up to 2,5 M times.

The unit will stay on site until July 2024. Visits to the plant, as well as information seminars will be organised throughout the whole treatment period, as soon as the plant is tuned in and results arrive.

So if interested in our system, solutions and the Horizon project. Keep following us on LinkedIn, and contact us for information and for interest in seeing the unit. It will be worth the time, and as we all now, ALL becomes better with bubbles 😇🫧

See you at Aquatech November 6


Want to talk remediation, destruction and stabilisation of PFAS? In-situ treatment of 1,4 Dioxande and robust, small footprint nitrate and ammonia water treatment – Full scale and commercially available technologies.

Visit the Envytech crew (together with Cornelsen Ltd.) in booth 07.706 at the Aquatech exhibition in Amsterdam 6–9 November. We look forward to seeing you!

Another load of RemBind loaded for remediation of airport soil


If you have followed the Envytech Solutions AB PFAS crew, and our presentations of soil stabilisation, you will be aware of the huge leachability that even light to moderate soil have on the underlying groundwater.

In the presentations showing our leachability work, one can see that for example, 48 µg/kg PFAS (43 µg/kg PFOS) , in a soil that has been sitting out in the environment for years and years, living the everyday challenges of life, leaching as can be expected, still leach 11 000 ng/l when trialed in a 2 step leachability test. In Sweden, we have a guideline value for PFAS4 (PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA) of 4 ng/l. So easy to see, that even this kind of low contaminated soil, is causing major contamination of the groundwater, that the site owner.- as well as the society and environment – will have to pay for.

Stabilisation is YES keeping the contaminant on site and is still the liability of the site owner. But the risk factor is majorly decreased, and further spreading of the contamination is immediately stopped, as well the increasing cost for ground water treatment. Something that should be taken into the equation.

Why Rembind by Envytech . Well compared to many other carbon products we have trialed in the field, full scale, Rembind is easy to apply, an economic solution when compared to other carbon, and a product that through all our full scale projects, are proving to minimize leachability with up to 99,9% , or whatever the site owner thinks is a reasonable number. This as it all comes down to amount of Rembind (%) used. And as you can see in the table below, we achieve immense reductions with very limited percentage of additive.

Something that does seem to be forgotten in lab studies and other work performed in laboratories, where the clients economics, or the ability to get a good ful scale performance, is never valued.

As I tend to say. Food for thought.

Summary of Life-Source project review meeting on first PFAS remediation in Spain as well as plans for Swedish site


Massive day yesterday with information bonanza for over 9 hours. A head spin yes, but to much science and tech is just awesome 😎.

We talked about the awareness of PFAS at local EPAs in Spain, and how that is changing with increasing knowledge about PFAS. And off course also due the fact that Spain has now a PFAS legislation, much thanks to, this project, amongst other.
– Now how cool is that 👌👏. Talk about making change for real.

We went through the very successful regeneration procedure for AEX Ionexchange resin that Leonidas Perez-Estrada at EURECAT is in charge of, offering this possibility to all users of the Purolite, An Ecolab Company PFAS resins

And last and but not least, we did some professional filming for the video that the project is producing to further increase the sharing of the knowledge and data obtained throughout EU and the world. Hollywood next 🎥

Day 2 coming up, so stay tuned for more updates and data!

Incredible day kicking off another large PFAS stabilization project using Rembind


Wonder how stabilization of PFAS contaminated soil can be done? For this 4000 ton stabilization project for PFAS contaminated soil from an airport, our client offered interested clients and problem owners a live show. I have seen all our projects performed, but this time was the first using an Allu bucket to mix Rembind – a patented well documented and tested stabilization product from RemBind  Australia, with the contaminated soil. We are used to working with tumble screens or vibrating screens, but as our client Dåva Landfill are used to mix with an Allu bucket, we were super keen to see the result.

And as you can see, it works very well.
The Rembind was premixed to a 10% mix, and this soil was then spread on top of approx.100 tons of the contaminated soil with a front loader. The soil were then mixed with the Allu bucket to a 1,5% Rembind concentration. You see one mixing round in the film, and another 3 were to be performed.

Lab scale results show that 1,5% Rembind minimize leachability of all PFAS28 with minimum 95%. The soil will then be landfilled in sealed cells, to provide a long term minimal leachability setting. And Job Done  ✅👌

For more info on us and our remediation solutions for PFAS in soil and water, contact Helena Hinrichsen or Robin Axelson.

We might not get greeted by Nasdaq, but we are close to present a similar sustainable solution for destroying PFAS – In Europe 🇪🇺💪👊


It feels like yesterday, but it’s 4 years ago, I first met the OPEC Systems – protecting and improving our environment – team and saw the potential of SAFF. Two years later we launched the first full scale mobile SAFF system here in Sweden, treating complex leachate for the first time in the world, using Foam Fractionation.

It has since then been a mind-blowing journey of hard work, passion, sweat and tears – because it didn’t start off being just bubbles in water, even if it sounds that way. It’s an experience heavy, learn by doing and optimizing treatment tech journey, and we have come really far.

My goal has since the start been the a sustainable zero waste solution. And yes it stings that we didn’t get to be the first, but it feels ok as the US is a tad bigger and lately a lot more advanced. So congratulations to EPOC Enviro team and Kent Sorenson with team Allonnia for amazing work.

But Europe is still up for grabs, and we are going at it full throttle, teaming up with some super potent partners for destruction, and with our first test projects already on the go.

So wish us luck, and keep following our journey for a sustainable concentration and destruction of PFAS solution. We will be out there  with a hand made sign when we make it, if no one makes one for us 😎 🤞📣

Envytech and team SCENARIOS Project EU H2020 collects insects, biota, soil and groundwater to trace PFAS transport


Beautiful days, beautiful team, beautiful work. And beautiful photos! 👌📸.

The quest to map the PFAS journey into the environment through air, water and soil, into plants, insects and animals, and into its last  almost permanent housing, the human body continues. And as a part of the work, we last week teamed up at a heavily contaminated site in Sweden to sample as many receptor ”medias” as possible, to try and map quantity and routes for PFAS.

In these nature rich photos our project manager Say Svanström shines with energy  as a result of being part of this important work. And who wouldn’t. The fate and transport of PFAS is one of the world’s most rapid growing worries, and we need all efforts possible, to help prove the consequences of this, in order to get a ban for these toxins.

Envytech is a partner in team Scenarios, lead by our incredible team leader Francesco Dondero, PhD.  We are assigned Work Package leaders for WP7 – Remediation – and 18 months into the project, we are getting ready to move from Bench scale to full scale remediation of PFAS contaminated groundwater at Korsör in Denmark.

For more info on us, the project or our technologies, please contact Helena Hinrichsen or Say Svanström.

Envytechs first generation 2 SAFF40 has arrived.


Join the team as they open up the doors to inspect the latest upgrades that we have been a big part of developing. This unit will soon treat complex leachate for the two years that are left on our contract at Telge Återvinning in Tveta, Södertälje, and can be viewed from mid April 2023.

So if interested, contact Helena Hinrichsen